THE OIKONOMIA OF SALVATION IN OLD ISRAEL
Before we examine our subject we should first understand what the term Oikonomia of Salvation means. The Oikonomia of Salvation is not an abstract composition. It is the way in which our Heavenly Father, the wise Architect, in His Wisdom, disposed the salvation of mankind. Oikonomia brings together the events which are scattered around and within it. It is nothing less than the mind of God, seen by the Prophets of Old Israel and the Saints of New Israel. The design of the supreme disposer is not found in abstraction, but in the artistry of certain events woven together in time and place. The word oikonomia is first found in Greek literature. The use of oikonomia moved from domestic to political economy, from the management of a household to the management of a city (Aristotle, Politics, 3.1 285b). It became a common Hellenistic word for good administration or purposeful arrangement.
在我們開始檢視我們的主題前，我們必須先瞭解，救贖的經綸（Oikonomia of Salvation）這個詞的意義。救贖的經綸不是一個抽象的創作。它乃是我們天上的父，智慧的建築師，在祂的智慧中，將救恩賜給人類的方法。Oikonomia把這個方法中所有分散的事件結合在一起。祂就是舊以色列的先知已經新以色列的聖徒們所看見的神的思想。這位至高的分賜者不是一個抽象的觀念，祂在時間與空間中用藝術的手段把某些特殊的事件織造在一起。Oikonomia這個詞首先出現在希臘文學作品中。Oikonomia的用法從家庭的經濟管理逐漸轉為政治的經濟管理，從管理一個家庭轉為管理一座城市（Aristotle, Politics, 3.1 285b）。它成為一個常常用來描述良好的管理或有計畫的安排之希臘字。
Saint Paul in Ephesians links it with the hidden divine purpose for the salvation of man (Ephesians 1:8-11).
Wherein He hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence; Having made known unto us the mystery of His will, according to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Himself: That in the oikonomia (dispensation) of the fullness of times He might gather together in one (ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι) all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in Him: In Whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of Him who worketh all things after the counsel of His own will.
這恩典是神用全般的智慧和明達，使其向我們洋溢的，照著祂的喜悅，使我們知道祂意願的奧秘；這喜悅是祂在自己裏面預先定下的，為著時期滿足時的經綸(分賜)，要將萬有，無論是在諸天之上的，或是在地上的，都在基督裏歸一 (ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι) 於一個元首之下；我們既在祂裏面，照著那位按祂意願所決議的，行作萬事者的定旨，蒙了預定，也就在祂裏面成了所選定的基業。
In Ephesians 3:2-11 Saint Paul speaks also concerning the realisation and revelation of that oikonomia.
If ye have heard of the oikonomia (dispensation) of grace of God which is given me to you-ward: How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; … And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God, According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord.
In patristic writers before Saint Irenaeus the word oikonomia covers four main meanings: 1) the plan of God and its fulfilment in the incarnation (St. Ignatius, Ephesians 18,2; 20,1; St. Aristides 15,1; St. Justin Dialogue 30,3; 31,1; 45; 87,5; 103,3; 120,1; St. Athenagoras 22,4), 2) a particular work prophesied of Christ (St. Justin Dialogue 67,6; 107,3; 134,2; 141,4), 3) the office of a bishop (St. Ignatius, Ephesians6,1), and 4) disposition or arrangement in general (Martyrdom of St. Polycarp, 2:2; Tatian To Greeks, 5,1; 12,2; 12,3; 18,2; 19,4; 21,3; St. Theophilos To Autolycos, 2,12,29; To Diognetos, 4-5). Saint Justin develops the notion of multiple economies, such as events in the lives of patriarchs, within one grand economy. In this way he systematizes typology and anticipates Saint Irenaeus.
在聖愛任紐之前的教父作品中，Oikonomia這個詞主要涵蓋了4個方面的意義：1）神的計畫並其在道成肉身中的實現（英格那丟，以弗所書18,2; 20,1; St. Aristides 15,1; 遊絲丁，Dialogue 30,3; 31,1; 45; 87,5; 103,3; 120,1; St. Athenagoras 22,4），2）預言關於基督的特殊工種（遊絲丁Dialogue 67,6; 107,3; 134,2; 141,4)），3）主教的職分（英格那丟，以弗所 6:1），4）一般性的分賜或安排（Martyrdom of St. Polycarp, 2:2; 踏天，To Greeks, 5,1; 12,2; 12,3; 18,2; 19,4; 21,3; St. Theophilos To Autolycos, 2,12,29; To Diognetos, 4-5）。聖遊絲丁發展出一種多重經綸的觀念，就好像在列祖一生中所發生的事件都在一個大範圍的經綸中。他用這種方式系統化了聖經的預備，並為愛任紐鋪平了道路。
In Saint Irenaeus, creation is the first act in the Oikonomia of God. We could say, the first step in God’s plan. Saint Irenaeus attributes this to the wise architect and sovereign king (2.11.1). He speaks of God drawing up the plan of salvation (4.I4.2). God's saving work, which began with creation, was not limited to a particular event. Certainly it belonged within events and history. God became man that man might become God. God achieves this exchange in Christ as second Adam, who is both human creature and divine being. The Incarnation thus fixes the Oikonomia of God within history: How can they be saved unless it be God who has worked their salvation on earth? And how can man pass into God if God has not passed into man (4.33.4). This exchange is not restricted to the Incarnation, however, but works through all salvation history. The universal Oikonomia is made up of smaller diverse Oikonomiai of events which form the different saving dispositions which God has granted. The Old and New Testaments display God's universal plan to bring salvation and blessing; ripening for immortality (5,29,13).
在愛認紐的著作中，創造是神經綸的第一個行動。我們可以這樣說，神的計畫的第一步。聖愛任紐講這個行動歸於一位智慧的建築師和自主的君王（2.11.1）。他論到神制定了一個救贖的計畫（4.14.2）。神救贖的工作從創造開始，不被限制在某個特殊的工作上。它理所當然的屬於歷史的事件。神成為人為了讓人能夠成為神。（God became man that man might become God.）神在基督這位第二個亞當裏面完成了這個交換（exchange），祂同時是被造的人耶穌神聖的存有。道成肉身藉此把神的經綸固定在歷史之中：若非神在地上完成他們的救恩，他們怎能得救呢？若非神先進入到人裏面，人又怎麼可能進入到神裏面呢？（4.33.4）這個交換並不被限制在道成肉身中，它的運作貫穿整個救贖的歷史。宇宙的經綸由更小的，各種不同的Oikonomia事件構成，這些事件是神允許的不同救贖性的分賜。舊約和新約都展示了神宇宙性的計畫，帶來救贖和祝福；以及不朽（5.29.13）。
Christ bestows the Holy Spirit on the Church (3.17.3); completing the threefold plan: creation, incarnation and the fullness of the spirit. The Oikonomia of Salvation is a succession of times or seasons where man participates in God. In the first stage, faith in God and his purpose is governed by natural precepts (4.13.4), the second stage is the law (4.13.1) and the third stage is the gospel (4.16.4, 5). When the natural precepts were not obeyed, the law came both in response to sin (hardness of heart, failure of love) and to prophesy Christ. In the Old Testament; Patriarchs and Prophets prepared the way for Christ. In the New Testament, Law and Prophets disappear; there is a return to natural law accompanied by the gift of the Holy Spirit and adoption as sons (4.16.5). The gift of the Spirit is partial in the Church but total in the Kingdom of the Father. The first purpose of the Oikonomia of Salvation was to accustom man to God (3. 20. 2). God's hands (the Logos and the Holy Spirit) were already accustomed to sustaining mankind because they fashioned and shaped Adam: For by means of the very same hands through which they (Enoch and Elias) were moulded at the beginning, did they receive this translation and assumption. For in Adam the hands of God had become accustomed to set in order, to rule, and to sustain His own workmanship, and to bring it and place it where they pleased. (5.5.1).
基督把聖靈賜給教會（3.117.3）；完成了三方面的計畫：創造，道成肉身已經聖靈的豐盛（the fullness of the spirit）。救贖的經綸是人能夠有份於神的下一個階段。在第一個階段中，在神和祂的計畫中的信被人的本性所管理（4.13.4），在第二個階段中是律法（4.13.1），在第三個階段是福音（4.16.4,5）。當人的本性背叛後，律法進來壓制罪（剛硬的心，無法愛神）並預言基督的來臨。在舊約中；列祖和先知們預備了基督的來臨。在新約中，律法和先知消失了；人性的律隨著聖靈的恩典和養子的名分（4.16.5）回歸。聖靈的恩典在教會中是部分的，但是在父的國之中是完全的。救贖經綸的第一個目的是要讓人習於神（3.20.2）。神的手（道和聖靈）已經習於維持人類，因為祂們塑造了亞當：因為透過同樣的兩只手，他們（以諾和以利亞）在起初被造，他們也領受了那種轉換。因為神的雙手在亞當中已經習於受命被差遣，管制，並維護。祂本身的工作就是根據祂們的喜悅帶來救贖的計畫並安置之。（5.5.1）
In Abraham, the first fellow-citizen of the Word of God, man became accustomed to follow the Word of God. In his sacrifice of his son he was a prophet who saw the Oikonomia of the Lord's passion, by which he and all who believed would be saved. Abraham's faith looked back to the creator and forward to the promise of posterity （4.21.1). Between creation and Incarnation God accustoms man to the Logos. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob prefigure what is to come, and the Oikonomiai of God accustom His people to live as strangers in the world and to follow the guidance of the Logos. Scripture prescribes a life which is alien to the world and obedient to God (4.21.3).
在亞伯拉罕的歷史中，他是神的道的第一個作為同伴的公民（the First fellow-citizen），人習於跟隨神的道。在他獻自己兒子為祭的這件事上，他是看見神經綸的先知，他和所有相信的人透過這個祭被拯救。亞伯拉罕的信心可以回顧到造物主，也可以預見對於後裔的應許。（4.21.1）在創造與道成肉身間，神要人習於道。亞伯拉罕，以撒與雅各都是要來之事的預表，神的經綸要祂的百姓習於在世界中為陌生人的生活，並跟隨道的引導。聖經描述了一種與世界完全不同又順服神的生活。（4.21.3）
Due to man’s natural inability and later sinful nature, the progress from preparing to receive God to receiving God to containing God, to holding on to God takes place gradually within the Oikonomia of Salvation. Development fits, adjusts, accustoms man to God (3.20.2) to ensure man's progress, growth maturing and fruitfulness. While Adam is in one sense perfect, the possibility of further perfection is set before him. Adam had received the Glory of God but was created to go in the words of Saint Gregory of Nyssa, from Glory to Glory.
因著人本性的無能以及後天的罪性，從預備接受神到接受神，再到包括神，再到緊緊抓住神，是在救贖經綸中一個漸進的過程。這個發展調整人，並讓人習於神（3.20.2）以保障人的發展，成熟並結果子的懲治。當亞當在一個意義上而言是完美的時候，他面前有一個可以讓他更為完全的可能性。亞當已經領受了神的榮耀，但是根據貴格利的話，他的被造是為了從榮耀到榮耀（from Glory to Glory）。
The Lord has ordered everything for the perfection of man.
Revelation began with creation and continued through the Law and the Prophets. In the whole of creation, especially humanity, the Logos reveals Himself as the maker of the world and the artificer of man. This revelation is addressed to all, as were the Law and the Prophets, in which the Logos proclaimed himself and the Father. Revelation is one continuous history. From the eternal universal work of revelation we grasp the continuity of history under the hand of the Son, Who, for the Father, administers and perfects all things from beginning to end, for without Him no one could know God (4.6.7). The revelation of the Father by the Son is not a future but a past and present event which goes on through all time. The Son is present in creation, His handiwork, from the beginning, revealing the Father to all whom the Father wills, as and how the Father wills. Unity and universality mark the Godhead and the salvation given to all believers (4.6.7). All the history of the world appears in this synthesis, so vast and yet so closely integrated; the Divine Oikonomia reveals itself; wonderful in its unity and its progressive development.
The Son shows God to men and presents man to God. God's glory is man made alive and man is alive when he sees God (4.20.7). The spirit plays a continuing role as He reveals the Word (dem. 5, 7). He inspires the prophets so that they declare God's plans (1.10.1) and make known the Oikonomiai of Father and the Son (4.33.7). There is a progression from the Spirit-given vision of the prophets to the adoptive vision in the Son and to the paternal vision in the coming kingdom (4.20.5).
Divine plan and human development are evident in the four covenants: Adam, Noah, Moses and Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is the final revelation to which everything else points. Not only is the whole Oikonomia of Salvation directed to Christ, it is all His work. The continuity of the saving event lies in the person and work of Christ (3.11.8) through all four testaments (3.11.8) and the fourfold gospel. Everything is made by the Logos (3.8.3), from Whose image man is made (3.23.1), so that the coming of the Logos manifests both the formation and the Maker (4.33.4). His work fits together logically and aesthetically; it is appropriate to the time and continuous in faithfulness (4.20-7). He is both subject and object of prophecy (4.26.1; 4.10.1); the words of Moses and the prophets are His words (4.2.3) for the prophets received their charisma from Him (4.20.4). Moses and the prophets speak of Him (4.1 10.1; 4.9.3). As a fulfilment, Christ cannot be the end of the law unless He be its beginning too (4.12.4). The law taught in advance how man should follow Christ (4.12.5). Our Lord is both subject and object of the preaching of the Apostles (3.1 .1).
Within the Oikonomia of Salvation there can be disruption and discontinuity because of man’s disobedience. God in His freedom chooses certain moments to correct and restore man to the path which will lead to the fulfillment of God’s Oikonomia. All things are new because of the newness of the Incarnation, so that man might return to God and learn to worship Him in a new way (3.10. 2). He has made all things new by the gift of Himself (4.34.1). The prophets had told of a new covenant. (4.33.14) and we know that newness will renew and vivify humanity (4.34.1). This newness is a fulfilment rather than a break with the past, for Christ reigns in the house of Jacob, forever and without a break (3.10.2). There was newness also in earlier seasons (kairoi), for there are many precepts and many steps which lead man to God (4.9.3). The prophets spoke of the one and same God under many aspects and many titles (3.10.6) because each season has its own character. Newness does not imply discontinuity (4.5.3).
The healing hands of the incarnate Saviour carry on the first formation of man. The Logos forms us in the womb (cf. Ps. 139:13 - 16). When the eyes of the blind man were healed, the manner of human creation was declared; (the hand which healed the part was the hand which formed the whole (5.15.3). The Creator of the eyes now heals them. The hands of God confirm the activity of the Creator who made the world through himself, that is, through His Word and Wisdom (2.30.9). He created, modeled, breathed life into and now nourishes us by his creation (3.25.1). The heavens are measured in the palm of his hand (Isa. 40:12). He who fills the heavens and looks on the abyss is with each one of us. God is near and not far off (Jer. 22:23): For His hand encloses us in our hidden and secret ways (4.19.2).
The hands of God are a symbol of the descending love by which God is known. For we do not merely meet God face to face, but are formed by God's hands in ineffable proximity. God does not merely talk and appear: he touches, grasps, shapes and models. His hands are ultimate: we do not look for another substance nor for another hand of God besides that which from the beginning even to the end forms us and prepares us for life, and is present with His handiwork and perfects it after the Image and Likeness of God (5. 16. 1). Continuity and eternity link the Holy Trinity with the Oikonomia of Salvation. God’s goodness pours out on man who must grow towards Him as if to the Sun.
The Oikonomia of Salvation is the eternal Will of God to bring Adam into the Glory of Divinity. Since the Will of God is one and eternal, the events within the Oikonomia of Salvation are mysteries which are also one and eternal. Time does not separate them nor do they take place independently of each other. It is for this reason that today we can chant triumphantly the Katavasiai of the Holy Cross and of the other Feasts and glorify God for the Mysteries of His Oikonomia. In Ode 1 of the Katavasiai, Prophet Moses triumph is our triumph: Ode 1. Inscribing the invincible weapon of the Cross upon the waters, Moses marked a straight line before him with his staff and divided the Red Sea, opening a path for Israel who went over dry-shod. Then he marked a second line across the waters and united them in one, overwhelming the chariots of Pharaoh. Therefore let us sing to Christ our God, for He hath been glorified.
At the Red Sea it was our Lord who saved the Children of Israel and destroyed the
power of Pharaoh. It is for this reason we can chant in the First Ode: Therefore let us
sing to Christ our God, for He hath been glorified. Moreover, the victory of the people of Israel at the Red Sea is our victory and it is for this reason we can chant:
Ode 4. O Lord, I have heard the mystery of Thy dispensation: I have considered Thy
works, and I have glorified Thy Godhead.
乃是我們的主在紅海拯救了以色列的百姓，並摧毀了法老的勢力。我們因著這個原因詠唱第一段：因此，讓我們向我們的神基督歌唱，因為祂已經被榮耀了。此外，以色列百姓在紅海的勝利也是我們的勝利，我們也是因著這個原因暢詠：Ode 4. 哦主！我已經聽見你分賜的奧秘：我已經思想你的工作，我也榮耀了你的神格。
It is the teaching of our Saviour in the Gospels that He was and is the Shepherd of
Israel, Who from the beginning of Creation tended His flock. This is why Saint John the Theologian chose to begin his Gospel with the words In the beginning was the Logos. These words open up and the true meaning of the first words of the Book of Genesis, In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth. It is the Logos Who, in the beginning, created His own flock and then later gave His own life so that the flock could be led into the Eternal sheepfold.
In the beginning our Lord was in Paradise with Adam, preparing him for the day when the Likeness in which Adam was created would reach its fullness. Adam was created perfect but had to use his free will to come to full perfection and become fully conformed to the Likeness of Christ. The commandment which Adam received was an obedience which was given to assist him in becoming conformed to the Likeness, to become Christ-like. It is for this reason, in icons showing Adam in Paradise, he is depicted in the Likeness of Christ. It was the Logos Who was preparing Adam for full participation in the Glory of God.
我們的主起初與亞當一同住在伊甸園中，預備亞當，好叫被造在他裏面的樣式有一天能夠達到完全並完成成為基督的樣式。亞當所領受的誡命是一種能夠幫助他模成那個樣式，成為與基督相似（to become Christ-like）的順服。也是基於這個理由，在表現亞當在伊甸園中的圖像（icon）中，他被描繪為基督的樣式。乃是那位道預備亞當完全有份於神的榮耀。
The Mystery of the restoration of mankind began with the fall of our Forefathers. Adam fell but was not separated from God totally. The dialogue between God and Adam and Eve represents our Lord’s admonishment and initial acts to bring our Forefathers to repentance. Adam and Eve resisted and only after their expulsion from Paradise did they realize their sin. God cursed Satan not Adam. The expulsion from Paradise and death was not a condemnation but part of the mercy of God which sought the restoration of the Image and Likeness. This is reflected in the writings of the Fathers and in the service for Cheesefare Sunday. Following Augustine of Hippo, Roman Catholic and Protestant theology developed a theology based on the inheritance of original sin and the condemnation of God. Salvation then is based on satisfying God’s just wrath. In this theology God’s mercy and Oikonomia are totally denied.
The Prophets of Old Israel reveal to us the various steps and the progression which led to the Fullness of the times. God through the Word; He at one time conferring with His creature, and at another pro-pounding His law; at one time, again, reproving, at another exhorting, and then setting free His servant, and adopting him as a son; and, at the proper time, bestowing an incorruptible inheritance, for the purpose of bringing man to perfection? For He formed him for growth and increase, as the Scripture says: ‘Increase and multiply’. (4. 11. 1)
Throughout this whole period it was the Logos Who revealed God to man so that man would not be totally separated from God, lest man, falling away from God altogether, should cease to exist (4. 20. 7). The acts of God as recorded by the Prophets essentially are eschatological. When we hear of the destruction of Pharaoh at the Red Sea we understand that this event, as part of the Oikonomia of Salvation, is an essential part of the ultimate destruction of Satan.
The whole Oikonomia of Salvation can be divided into four stages each of which begins with a Covenant between God and man. The first three parts belong to the Oikonomia of Old Israel and consist of the Covenants between God and Adam, Noah and Moses. The final stage is the Covenant of Adoption where Christ is the Mediator。
The first Covenant was with Adam and the commandment of obedience was given as a token of this Covenant. Through sin Adam lost the Glory of God with which he was clad.Generations later, when man was in danger of totally abandoning the Lord, God made a new beginning and a new Covenant and gave the rainbow as a sign to all. After many generations the Children of Israel no longer had the Law of God engraved in their hearts and a third Covenant was given and a law, written on stone tablets, was given as a sign of the hardness of their heart. The Logos led the Children of Israel into the desert so that they could learn to follow Him again (5. 21, 3).
Throughout the three Covenants of the Old Testament it is the Logos Who is The Shepherd of Israel, leading the children of Israel. In the Gospels the Lord speaks to His Disciples and to people who are already accustomed to the image of God as the Shepherd of Israel (Ps 79:1; 22:1 LXX). There was an anticipation that the Messiah would come as a Shepherd for the nation (Jer. 38:10 LXX). As a shepherd shall he tend His flock and He shall gather the lambs with His arm (Isaiah 40:11). The Prophets constantly spoke of the Messiah Who would bring in a New Covenant (Jeremiah 28:31 LXX). The New Covenant inaugurates the return of the jubilant Divine shepherd with the lost sheep on His shoulders.
Every act of God and Prophetic utterance is a preparation for the coming of the Last Covenant. It is for this reason our Lord said: Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me (John 5:39). The words of the Prophets are the words of the Good Shepherd, spoken to Old Israel but also the foundation of the Faith of New Israel according to the Scriptures. The utterances of the Prophets all proclaim the Oikonomia of Salvation and therefore they are essential to the Children of New Israel. There is not one single service of the Church that does not call upon these words.
Although the Acts of God in the history of Old Israel may appear to be independent of each other they are in essence all steps within the preparation of mankind to receive the Incarnate Lord. In a language of their own they all speak of the New Covenant. The language of the Church which interprets the Acts of God and finds the unity among the unrelated is known as Typology.
In order to better understand what is meant by Typology let us examine how it is used.
In Romans 5:14 we read: nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure (τυπος) of him that was to come.
The King James word figure is a translation of the Greek word τυπος and it can refer to a person, thing or action. that looks forward to an antitype of the same in the New Testament. The type and the antitype are both different facets of the same event within the Oikonomia of Salvation. Even though both are independent of each other in time, they are bound together through the Grace of the Antitype. It is the Antitype of the Last Covenant that is the source of the Grace which gives life to the type found in the old Covenants. Many times, the word shadow is used instead of the word figure (the Mosaic Law, Col. 2:17; Tabernacle – Temple, Hebrews 8:5; 10:1). The word Antitype 1Pet 3:21, or Similitude, Rom 5:14, or no words 1Cor 10:2,6,11, Heb 3:1 to 4:11,11:19, are used to denote type.
Let us look at just one of the many types of our Lord in the Old Testament.
Saint John (1:36) tell us that Saint John the Baptist referred to our Saviour as the Lamb of God. Saint Paul proclaimed this also in 1 Corinthians 5: 7, Christ, our Passover, is sacrificed for us! The first deliverance from Egypt, which marked the institution of Passover, foreshadowed the final deliverance of God’s people who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb (Rev 19:9). This joyous Paschal Banquet represents the consummation of the hopes and expectations of God’s people of all ages. A foretaste of the joy of that Paschal Banquet can be experienced even now by responding to Christ’s knocking at the door of our hearts: Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any one hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he with me (Rev 3:20).
The Corinthian church was plagued with problems. To bring its members back to proper Christian behavior, Saint Paul appeals to the feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread as a model for what Christians should be:
Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump? Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us, therefore, celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth (1 Cor 5:6-8).
For Saint Paul, the feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread have profound implications for the Christian life. The old, the sinful must be cleaned out, the way the old leaven was removed from the homes of old Israel before Passover began. The new period initiated by our Saviour, the Paschal Lamb, demands new, unleavened, pure bread. Christian Pascha looks backward to the salvation of old Israel from Pharaoh, to the present, receiving the Body and Blood of the Lamb of God and forward to being with the Paschal Lamb in the New Jerusalem – Shine on! Shine on! Oh New Jerusalem. The whole Exodus account is one type and at the same time contains many types. The Pharaoh and his destruction in the Red Sea (Baptism), the Manna (Holy Communion, John 6:31-35), the smitten rock from which water flowed out (Holy Communion, 1 Cor. 10), the eternal battle against Amalek, victory of our Saviour and the Cross over Satan are all just a few examples. The passage of old Israel from Egypt to the Promised Land is a type of the whole Oikonomia of Salvation.
TYPOLOGY OF OUR FOREFATHER ADAM
Saint Paul teaches us that the hope of Redemption for both old Israel and new Israel is our Saviour – the new Adam. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure (τυπος) of him that was to come. (Romans 5:14).
Saint Irenaeus devotes many pages expounding on this passages which he combined with Ephesians 1:8 -11. It was necessary, therefore, that the Lord, coming to the lost sheep, and making recapitulation of so comprehensive a dispensation, and seeking after His own handiwork, should save that very man who had been created after His image and likeness, that is, Adam, filling up the times of His condemnation, which had been incurred through disobedience (3. 23. 1).
Here in one paragraph we have the whole teaching of the Church concerning the Oikonomia of Salvation summed up. Saint Irenaeus and all the Fathers followed Saint Paul in this teaching. Accordingly the various types and antitypes contained in the type of Adam were used when ever necessary. The creation of Adam from virgin earth – the birth of Christ from a Virgin; the disobedience of Adam and death – obedience of the Saviour and life; the tree in Paradise which brought death - the Holy Cross (the tree) which brought Life; Adam introduced death our Saviour brought eternal life; the defeat of Adam made mankind captive to death – the victory of the Lord makes us free from death.
We can not separate the first creation of Adam from the second creation of Adam. The Holy Fathers have always presented the Gospel as the fulfillment of the Covenants God made with old Israel. We know that instruction on the Oikonomia of old Israel was an essential part of the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles. Those brought into the Faith from the nations were led through the whole account of the Oikonomia of God and His Chosen People.
The words of our Lord as well as those of the Holy Apostles teach us that the Old Testament as a whole was regarded as an evangelical preparation. Throughout the whole New Testament we are constantly referred back to God’s Revelation in the Old Testament. The Word of God, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, is the content of both the Old and New Testaments. Our Saviour is the vivifying Spirit without which the Old Testament is lifeless and unintelligible.
In 2 Corinthians 3:14 - 16, St. Paul presents us with the fundamental principle of understanding the Old Testament:
their minds were blinded; for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the Old Testament; which vail is done away with in Christ.
The Old Testament is a hidden mystery to those who are not in Christ; in the Church. This mystery became manifest only to those who have Christ in them Colassians 1:26 - 27. Our Lord revealed the mystery of the Old Testament to His Disciples (Luke 23:13 - 35) but they were not able to comprehend it until they had received the fullness of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost.
If the Holy Scriptures are separated from our Saviour, they become lifeless words. Outside the Body of Christ, Holy Scriptures lose their vivifying spirit. The Holy Fathers teach us that the Holy Scriptures belong exclusively to the Church and form an integral part of what St. Irenaeus labeled The Canon/Rule of Truth (Against Heresies, I,10, 1; Proof, 6). St. Clement of Rome, a disciple of the Apostles, uses the term Canon/Rule of Tradition (1 Clement, 7, 2; 31, 1; 36, 1). Later it is referred to as The Canon/Rule of Faith. This Canon or Rule, which has the Apostolic writings as its foundation and support (Proof 1, 1), is contained within the life of the Church as a precious deposit in an excellent vessel (A. H. III, 24:1).
若聖經離開了我們的救主，它就會成為無生命的字句。在基督的身體之外，聖經就失去了其點活人的靈。聖教父告訴我們，聖經僅僅屬於教會，並構成了教會不可分割的一個部分，愛任紐稱其為真理的正典/規範（The Canon/Rule of Truth）（反異端1.10,1；Proof，6）。羅馬的革利免，使徒們的一個門徒，使用了傳統的正典/規範（The Canon/Rule of Tradition）這個詞。這個詞之後被當做信仰的正典/規範（The Canon/Rule of Faith）。這個正典或規範擁有使徒的著作作為其基礎與支持（Proof1,1），作為賜給教會的寶藏被教會這個貴重的器皿所承裝（A.H. III，24:1）。
The Church holds within her bosom the revelation of God as a Holy deposit. According to St. Melito, the Church is the depository of the Truth (Pascha 40) This revelation is not dormant but alive and life-giving just as the breath of God is for man, vivifying every part of the body (A. H. 24, 1). This Deposit of the Truth which brings life to every member of the Body of Christ is not confined to the written word. Knowledge of God is conveyed by The Spirit of Truth to all the members of the Body of Christ. St. Irenaeus states that even though the Christians of Gaul could not read the Scriptures since they did not know Greek, they nevertheless had salvation written in their hearts by the Spirit, without paper or ink (A.H. III, 4, 2).
Every book of the New Testament includes somewhere on its pages a citation or an allusion to the Old Testament. These allusions are as much an opening up of the Scriptures (Luke 24:32) as the quoting of the very words of the Holy Prophets. It is the Mystery of our Lord’s Incarnation which is the key to the opening up the whole of the Old Testament, not just the words of the Prophets.
In order to fully understand what is taught in the New Testament, we must first come to an understanding of how the New Testament is to be read through the eyes of the Old or as we confess According to the Scriptures.
As part of The Canon of Truth, the Old Testament writings find their fullness within the Apostolic writings of the New Testament. St. Irenaeus and the Apostolic tradition which he followed, believed that the revelation of God within the writings of the Old Testament was from our Lord, the Word of God (A. H. IV, 2, 3). The Fathers understood that when our Lord said; For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me (John 5:46), He was teaching that the words of Prophet Moses were spoken in reference to the Word. Our Lord, the Alpha and the Omega, is the point of embarkation from which all things originate. St. Irenaueus teaches us that the Word of God is the beginning (Arch) of both the Old and the New Testament. The Word of God is the ‘beginning’ of Genesis 1:1 and the ‘beginning’ of John 1:1 (Proof of the Apostolic Doctrine, 43).
Although Holy Scripture consists of many writings, there is an order and unity which provides a true image or ikon of our Lord. This order and unity consists of the historic events, the words of the prophets and the images of the Oikonomia of Salvation. If this order and unity is changed, then we no longer have a true Scriptural Ikon of Salvation in Christ but a distortion. It is the Church, while preserving the Rule of Faith, which maintains this order and struggles against every distortion. The Church contains the true pattern of Biblical revelation, the great design of God’s redemptive Providence. When we study the various books of the New Testament and their relation to the Old Testament, we will see how the Apostles used not only the words of the Prophets, the historic acts of God for the people of Israel and the various figures (τυποι) of the Oikonomia of Salvation as their starting point. The words that the Apostles used when they proclaimed the Gospel of our Saviour are words that in themselves contain prophecy. Two such words out of many are the Word (ο Λογος) and tabernacled (εσκηνωσεν).
雖然聖經有許多不同的書卷，但是在其中有一個次序與合一性，為我們的主提供了一個形像或素描。這個次序與合一性包括了歷史的事件，先知的話，以及救贖經綸的圖畫。若這個次序或合一性改變了，那麼我們就不再擁有真實的，聖經對於在基督中之救贖的圖畫，而只剩下扭曲變形的圖畫。教會在保守了信仰規範（the Rule of Faith）的同時，也維持這個次序並對抗任何的扭曲。教會包括了對於聖經啟示真正的形式，救贖神對於救贖性的看護之偉大設計。當我們研讀新約的不同書卷並它們與舊約間的關係的時候，我們就會看見使徒們如何使用先知的話，神為了以色列百姓施行的歷史事件並許多關於救贖經綸的圖畫(τυποι)作為起點。使徒在宣告我們救主的福音之時所使用的話本身就包括預言。有兩個凸出的字，它們是道（ο Λογος）和帳幕（εσκηνωσεν）。
John 1:14 is just one example of using the New Testament as a key to open up the Old Testament and at the same time using the Old Testament to interpret the New Testament. In the Holy Scriptures and in the Fathers we see that God, Who dwells among man, is known precisely because He reveals Himself to man (Theophany). In John 1:14 we read, And the Word was made flesh, and tabernacled (εσκηνωσεν - dwelt) among us, and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
約翰一14就是使用新約作為開啟舊約之鑰匙並在同時使用舊約詮釋新約的一個例子。在聖經並教父的作品中，我們看見住在人裏面的神因著祂將自己啟示 (Theophany)給人而為人所知。在約翰一14中我們讀到，道成了肉身，並支搭帳幕 (εσκηνωσεν - dwelt) 在我們中間，我們注視祂的榮耀，就是父獨生子的榮耀，滿了恩典與真理。
The use of the word dwelt (εσκηνωσεν – tabernacled or dwelt) in this passage is significant. This one passage brings together the whole Oikonomia of Salvation from creation to the Glorious Coming again of our Lord. If we were to literally translate the word εσκηνωσεν, we would render it as He pitched His tent. Immediately we would see that St. John is telling us that the Lord is dwelling among us in a new way. This new Dwelling of the Lord is what is proclaimed in the Gospels. In using the word εσκηνωσεν St. John ties the dwelling of God among His people in the days of the old Covenants with the dwelling of God among His people in the days of the new Covenant (Amos 9:11).
The significance of the use of the word εσκηνωσεν was recognized by the Fathers of the Church. St. Irenaeus commenting on the Oikonomia of Salvation, extends the use of the word εσκηνωσεν to the indwelling of the Holy Spirit; The Spirit of God, Who furnishes us with knowledge of the truth, and has set forth the economies of the Father and the Son, in virtue of which He dwells with every generation of men (A.H., IV, 32, 7).
St. John Chrysostom, following the Apostolic teaching asks; What then was the tabernacle in which He dwelt? He answered his own question with a quote from the Old Testament; Hear the Prophet say, I will rise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen (Amos 9:11). The difference between the Incarnation of our Lord and the Theophanies of the Old Testament is expressed by St. John by using the concept of σκηνη (tent/dwelling); Observe, I pray you, the awful and ineffable nature of the mystery. He (the Lord) inhabits the tabernacle for ever (John XI, 2).
The following two passages will further illustrate that the use of εσκηνωσεν in the Gospel of St. John, refers back to the Old Testament and its teaching on the dwelling of God:
Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said, Hear me, my brethren, and my people: As for me, I had in mine heart to build an house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God, and had made ready for the building (LXX - kataskhvnwsin) 1 Chronicles 28:2.
So shall they be my people, and I will be their God. And David my servant shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children's children for ever: and my servant David shall be their prince for ever.
Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.My tabernacle/ dwelling also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And the heathen shall know that I the LORD do sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for evermore (Ezekiel 37:23-28).
Our Lord Himself often referred to Himself in terms of the Temple/Tabernacle of
Solomon. A brief examination of Mark 14:58 - 62 will provide us with further opening
up of the mystery of the Holy Tabernacle. Our Lord expands his teaching concerning
the Temple and Himself by speaking of the Temple made without hands as was
announced by Prophet Daniel (Daniel 2:45). The reference to the Temple and the
coming of the Son of Man is the opening up of the Prophecy of Prophet Daniel without specifically quoting the words of the Prophet (Daniel 7:13). This brief elucidation on the use of the image of the Tabernacle is but one of many example of how the Old Testament is the key to the New and the New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old.
Our Saviour first taught us about the opening up of the Old Testament. The Holy Apostles continued this when they went throughout the world teaching the Gospel. Wherever they went they taught that everything that was taught in the Gospels was first taught by the Old Testament and that everything that took place in the Gospels happened According to the Scriptures.